• WHAT: C

  • WHEN: pre-1900

  • WHO: Un-Gyve Press

  • WHERE: Boston

CALOTYPE: An early photographic process in which negatives were made using paper coated with silver iodide; origin mid 19th century: from Greek kalos ‘beautiful’ + type. The name given to the first practical negative-positive process of photography. Capable of producing multiple copies of any given image, the calotype was invented by William Henry Fox Talbot in September of 1840 and is also known as Talbotype. An image made by the calotype process by which plain sheets of writing paper coated with a silver nitrate solution are dried and then dipped in potassium iodide to form silver iodide. The paper is dried again and once dried floated on a mixture containing silver nitrate and gallic acid; the same mixture is then used to develop the negative image after exposure. After nuetralizing with a fixer to clear off the undeveloped silver the paper negative is typically waxed for transparency and used to make salt prints.

CAMPBELL: Thomas Campbell, Gateway of Glascow College. Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

CANVASSING BOOKS + OUTFITS: The tools of the Un-Gyve Subscription Book Agent — prospectuses, specimen books, salemen's dummies, and additional accoutrements of the trade.

CASH: Johnny Cash was a USAFSS member and morse code intercept operator, and Al Nemrow was a member of the ASA 331st Communications Reconnaissance Company monitoring Soviet activities, both stationed in Germany in the early 1950s. The activities of the U.S. Army Security Agency have only recently been partially declassified. Among the cryptographic intelligence activities since declassified (Approved for Release by NSA on 09-27-2007, FOIA Case #51633) is the program implemented to address the problem of compromised intelligence-bearing signals, codename: Tempest.

CATA.LOGUE: the -logue presents a preview of catalogue publications from The Un-Gyve Limited Group under Un-Gyve Press. In 1744, Benjamin Franklin, first cataloguer in the United States, invented the mail order concept when he published the premiere catalogue, selling scientific and academic books. Benjamin Franklin is also credited with making the first mail order guarantee: "Those persons who live remote, by sending their orders and money to B. Franklin may depend on the same justice as if present". In 1872, Aaron Montgomery Ward produced the first mail-order catalogue for his Montgomery Ward mail order business. From about 1921 to 1931, Ward sold prefabricated kit houses, called Wardway Homes, by mail order. North Redwood, Minnesota railroad station agent Richard Warren Sears started his business selling watches through mail order catalogues. Sears moved to Chicago, Illinois where he met Alvah C. Roebuck, who partnered with him in the business, incorporated in 1893 as Sears, Roebuck and Co. The first Sears catalogue was published in 1888. By 1894, the Sears catalogue had grown to 322 pages, featuring sewing machines, bicycles, sporting goods, automobiles (produced from 1905–1915 by Lincoln Motor Car Works of Chicago, unrelated to the current Ford Motor Company brand of the same name) and a range of other new items.

CHATTERTON: Thomas Chatterton, Muniment Room. Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

CHAUCER: Geoffrey Chaucer, Tabard Inn — Southwark.* Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

CHESTER: Curating, publishing, and representing Mark Chester PhotographyArchive, The NO Show, Twosomes — along with the Mark Chester Foundation. Mark Chester contributes to the TRAVEL.LOGUE of the -logue.

CHINE-COLLÉ: French name for the thin Chinese and Japanese paper used for printing in England and known as "Indian Laid" (likely in reference to the East India Company which imported the paper); origin French: meanining Chinese paper attached, past participle of the French verb "coller," "to attach," and "chine" the European name for paper manufactured in China. The print-maiking method developed in the 1800s for high-quality book illustrations and single works of art whereby the image is transferred to a surface that is bonded to a heavier support in the printing process. The process permits the printmaker to print on more delicate surfaces, such as rice paper or linen, which pulls finer details off of the plate. During printing, an adhesive is applied to the back of the paper (traditionally a thin starch paste of rice flour and water), and then a second thicker more heavyweight paper is bonded to this under the pressure of the press as the image is simultaneously printed on the surface of the thin sheet. With this technique coloured and textured papers cut or torn to desired shapes are also laminated and overprinted with intaglio in a single run through the press as a kind of collage-printmaking. Chine-collé can also be accomplished with the lithographic printing method. A variation of the technique used by Russian paper conservators in treating pastel, charcoal, chalk and sanguine drawings (repeatedly placing the drawings on moistened blotters until the blotters appear clean) is used to conserve prints in chine-collé to prevent delamination.

CHRONO.LOGUE: history publications preservations + productions under Un-Gyve Press.

COLERIDGE: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Coleridge enlisting. Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

COLLOTYPE: Origin late 19th century: from Greek kolla 'glue' + type. An ink printing photographic process invented by Alphonse Poitevin in 1856 in which a glass printing plate is coated with bichromated gelatin, dried, contact printed with a negative and then washed; leaving a positive image formed by the light-hardened gelatin. A dilution of glycerin and water is applied to the surface and absorbed into the areas of less hardened gelatin; when inked, the ink is repelled from those soaked areas where water has been absorbed whereas the hardened parts retain greasy ink for transferral onto paper, porcelain, or a variety of other materials. An accelerated stove-drying technique postpones reticulation till the last moment of drying, resulting in a microscopically fine reticulation pattern so that the images are not readily distinguishable from metal-based photographic prints. Collotype became the preferred method for the production of high-quality reproductions, gradually displacing Woodburytype, and evidenced in early postcards. This planographic process can be considered the first practical process of photolithography; improved and then commercialized in France in 1857 by Lemercier and in 1860, by Ferdinand Joubert, under the name phototype. Although successful, the process was apparently seldom used until revived in 1867 by MM. Tessié du Motay, and Maréchal (de Metz) under the name phototypie. Joseph Albert, of Munich, further improved the process in 1868 under the name albertype. In 1873, Albert introduced the first rotary collotype press. About 1940, the offset press and gelatin coatings on thin, flexible metal sheets were adapted to collotype printing. The patent literature cites improvements until at least the 1960s. Although no longer a commercial process, collotype applications for fine art photography evolved in the United States, initially employed by Alfred Stieglitz before photogravure.

by Harry Thomas

Harry Thomas is the translator of Joseph Brodsky’s masterpiece, “Gorbunov and Gorchakov” (To Urania, 1987), and his selected translations were published as May This Be (Jackdaw Press, 2001). He is the editor of Selected Poems of Thomas Hardy (1993) and Montale in English (2002). His poems, translations, essays, and reviews have appeared in dozens of magazines. He is former Editor-in-Chief of Handsel Books, an imprint of Other Press as well as an affiliate of W. W. Norton. Published as Some Complicity: Poems & Translations by Harry Thomas from Un-Gyve Press.

CO-OP-PRODUCTION: An Un-Gyve Limited Group Cooperative. Creating circumstances that make it possible to do things cooperatively.

COPAL: A resin from any of a number of tropical trees, used to make varnish; obtained from trees in the families Leguminosae (genera Guibourtia, Copaifera, and Trachylobium) and Araucariaceae (genus Agathis); origin late 16th century: via Spanish from Nahuatl copalli ‘incense.’ The resin produced by tropical trees that are found in Madagascar is true copal which is hard, but other types of copal come from Brazil and from the U.S. that are softer (of sumac) and of lesser quality. Copal is used in graining in aquatint, in various galvanic processes and in making hard-grade lithographic crayons.

COWLEY: Abraham Cowley, House at Chertsey. Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

COWPER: William Cowper, House at Weston. Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

CRABBE: George Crabbe, Belvoir Castle. Views of the Haunts and Homes of the British Poets, Oct. 19 1850.

* written as Geoffry

N.B. The alphabet swatch colour is Cocoa Powder from the Un-Gyve Palette.